So the short of it is that USADA has new evidence. They still want Brown's deposition.
The case isn't at the point of considering or evaulating evidence from wither side.
The judge is only ruling whether USADA can compel Brown to testify. USADA has no jurisdiction, as Brown is not an athlete, coach, etc, that is under USADA's authority.
To point to the Armstrong legal story, this mirrors early battles, of which Armstrong said USADA didn't have jurisdiction to pursue a case. Indon't remember the details.
But here, the big difference is not whether the case can move forward; it theoritically could without testimony from Dr. Brown. And it seems that USADA won't be able to win this battle, trying to force Brown to testify.
Which points to the bigger issue of NADO authority. Only in the last year has WADA done anything to bring accountability of support personnel to the athlete, by prohibiting association with banned individuals. But as we see with Aden's case, Dr. Brown, "banned" Russian Coaches still coaching, or even the Virginia throws coach saga, their power is so limited. Doping goes far beyond the athlete, and as long as they have their own butt covered, their coaches, managers, and doctors can't be touched.
I'd like to see some precident established for USADA to have authority to depose these supporting roles, but in the context of this case, with medical privacy being such a big factor, I don't see it happening.