I have a masters degree in physiology and coach a few athletes, and have had some of my athletes ask me similar questions. Overall, from my understanding of the general research consensus, well trained men can usually do easy effort "fasted" runs <2hrs with a fairly minimal influence on their physiology (hormones, ability to recover, etc). There isn't much of a benefit overall to using this as a training tool (if you're training hard, your body is already very good at metabolizing fat without even doing strategies such as fasting to improve it). Fwiw, I occasionally do morning runs fasted, but never force it (I'm a 24 yo male).
In terms of women, it's a somewhat different story. Women fasting on easy runs are at a higher risk of having negative consequences of being in a short term energy deficit, and developing symptoms of RED-S (at worse, things such as stress fractures and amenorrhea and the consequences associated with those). It also appears that fasting has a greater influence and risk on disrupting proper hormone balance in females. Also, even if you're getting enough calories throughout the day to be in a positive energy balance, there's been good research demonstrating that being in a negative energy balance for even a few hours a day could still be causing detrimental effects.
Since higher intensity exercise relies more heavily on carbohydrates, I would say there is no good argument for fasting before harder workouts.
Tl;dr: men can fast before easy runs, but women probably shouldn't. Nobody should fast before harder workouts.
Trent Stellingwerf, a very well respected Canadian researcher (and also a coach to some of the top Canadian runners) is the expert on this topic, if you want to dive into this a little bit more.