It’s all about your effort level and duration. Running hard 800s until you throw up is different than hopping on the track and doing some 200s at a little faster than mile pace with plenty of rest.
I follow the school of thought that interval work is great year round, don’t call it speed work cause it implies you have to go fast and hard, but you need to periodize it. Normally I like short fast intervals with good rest, and then on another day do medium to long intervals at slower than race pace, when it’s time to peak, you want to meet in the middle for speed and effort, and take less rest time while doing so.
Most of the year, your workouts should look like:
8x200m @ 800-mile pace, take as much rest as you want
8-12x400m @ 3k-5k pace, 2-3 minutes rest
5-6x800m or 1000m at 10k pace (for a highschooler that doesn’t run 10k, I like to say 5k pace + 20-25 seconds a mile) 2-3 minutes rest
Then for the 1-2 months leading up to your goal race, they can get more like:
8x200m @800m pace, 2 minutes rest
8-10x400m @mile pace, 2 minutes rest
5-6x1000m @ 5k pace, 2-3 minutes rest
The workouts look similar, but the shorter rest time and faster paces will burn you out/injure you while the other workouts probably won’t. You need those workouts to get in your best possible shape though, and doing the other workouts year round sets you up to be able to handle these workouts better when the time comes.