It is well known that athletes will try many things on a slim chance that it works, especially if they are struggling to get to the next level. Athletes who train regularly will improve -- athletes/coaches/managers are not scientists who will control every variable. Sometimes an unethical doctor will put many athletes at risk, playing the percentages, for their own selfish gains.
casual obsever wrote:
Simply "being popped" for EPO doesn't mean that "EPO worked".
Seriously? You really think that athletes/coaches/managers would continue to use EPO without noticing improvements? For decades?
Why would they do that? Because they enjoy needles? Because they love the risk (without rewards)?