I know the difference MM. You are the one who is confused as 4 to 6 weeks would be enough time for ESAs to work and be the equivalent of a blood transfusion (which could also be done).
Was Jess tested OOC by UKAD or IAAF in the last year, or the last month, or while living in Spain? Drug testing at the event is not very useful.
Perhaps you need a little more reading Metric Miler:
1972-B.Ekblum,et al. Response to Exercise after Blood Loss and Reinfusion.Journal of Applied Physiology.1972 Aug;33(2):175-80. publishes about hemoglobin changes and exercise performance changes after blood transfusions. In the same year, Lasse Viren wins the 5k and 10k gold at the Olympics, and repeats both wins in the 1976 Olympics. There were suspicions of transfusions by the Finns, but we will never know for sure...
1976-Waldemar Cierpinski cheats to win gold medal for East Germany over my hero Frank Shorter, who I believe deserves two gold medals, which really shows how great Frank was...
1980-Cierpinski again wins marathon. Kaarlo Maaninka of Finland wins silver in 10k and bronze in 5k, and is found to have done blood transfusions.
1982-Francesco Conconi of Italy publishes journal articles about the anaerobic threshold, with variations on the CONCONI test being done to this day on runners and cyclists...
1984-Allberto Cova of Italy wins 10k Olympic gold...rumors of blood transfusions...,Marti Vainio of Finland wins silver in 10k,but is caught with anabolic steroid metenolone, which was possibly in his old stored blood which he transfused before the race, but forgot he was on metenolone when the blood was withdrawn for storage...not very smart doper, was he...!
Meanwhile, it is discovered that one third of the US Cycling team at the Olympics, which won 9 medals, were doing blood transfusions...
1985-blood transfusions are declared illegal and banned...but there is no test for detection..
1987-New England Journal of Medicine publishes trial of recombinant EPO called Epogen, made by the biotech firm Amgen. Amgen ironically goes on to be a major sponsor of the cycling Tour of California, where many of the riders are using its EPO product...
1988-Salvatore Antibo from Italy..wins Olympic silver in 10k..more rumors about him..Gelindo Bordin wins the gold medal in the marathon, and also wins Boston in 1990.
1989-Epogen approved by FDA for use in US
1989-1990-EPO moves into cycling in a big way. Belgian cyclists dropping dead..crazy stuff..
1990-1991- track has 3 to 5 sub 13:10 5k perfomers and/or performances per year..
1993-14 men break 13:10 a total of 21 times!!! while the Chinese women go on a rampage with Wang Junxia 29:31.78 10k WR, 8:06.11 3k WR, that still stand to this day!
Meanwhile, the first Italian coaches, led by Dr. Gabriele Rosa, arrive in Kenya....
1993 -2000-rampant EPO use..no test for detection..records smashed, huge depth of fast times by many people in track and cycling. Cyclists like Pantani and Riis pushing their hematocrits up to dangerous levels of 60 or 70%!!.. Cycling finally institutes a hematocrit cutoff limit max hematocrit of 50% or you can't race...cyclists respond by basically all of them then having hematocrits of 48-49.5%, just a coincidence that they are all just below the limit...right?
A protege of the Italian Dr. Conconi, mentioned previously, went on to become much more famous..his name was Dr. Michele Ferrari, and he was the doctor to the stars of pro cycling, most of all, he was doctor to Lance Armstrong, who is the prototype for a pharmaceutical experiment gone mad disguised as an athlete..They did everything...EPO,transfusions, the anabolic steroid testosterone, Human Growth Hormone, and probably other things we don't even know about. What a name! You can't make this stuff up...the mad genius Dr. Ferrari really did turn his riders into Ferraris, with extra horsepower!!!..., He also did a great job making sure that 1) he kept Lance alive and didn't kill him. and 2) that he somehow passed his drug tests. It was probably Ferrari that pioneered taking EPO by iv instead of subcutaneous injection, so that the EPO could be cleared faster, and the window for a positive epo test was then very small. A very smart guy who is presently in trouble with tax authorities for hiding large amounts of money in secret bank accounts, and he is also banned for life from cycling...
2000-first urine tests for epo appear around this time, not sure when, test improved by around 2005..The new test for EPO leads athletes back to the old method of blood transfusions, to avoid detection...
2004-Italian Stefano Baldini wins gold medal in marathon(Hmmm). American Tyler Hamilton is caught doing homologous blood tranfusion of someone else's blood at Tour of Italy( I think but not sure where,maybe Spain?) and at the Olympics, where he won gold medal. B test at Olympics had problems, kept medal on a technicality..but finally returned the medal in 2011. His lawyers used the famous "Tyler is a human chimera with a vanishing twin" defense to explain why he had blood from two different people in his bloodstream.. which wins the comedy prize for funniest doping excuse ever!!!
2008-CERA (Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator) , a new longer acting agent, with a much longer half-life 20x longer than epo, is appoved for use in Jan,2008 under the name Mircera. Rashid Ramzi tests positive for CERA at the 2008 Olympics, and loses his gold medal...
2009-2015-development of EPO mimetic peptides such as peginesatide and CNTO530 and development of orally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor(HIF) stabilizers. You can just take a pill which works like EPO. The Company Fibrinogen has compounds FG2216,FG4592, and FG4497, which stabilize HIF by inhibiting the enzyme prolyl-hydroxylase, which is involved in the breakdown of HIF by the ubiquitin proteosome pathway. HIF is a transcription factor which increases the gene expression of about 200 different genes, including the gene for EPO. So increased levels of HIF2alpha signals cells in the kidney to increase transcription of Erythropoietin(EPO), which travels to the bone marrow and binds to progenitor cells, and increases erythropoiesis, the production of new red blood cells, which is how HIF stabilizers work.
Another compound involved with HIF is cobalt chloride, which also acts as a HIF stabilizer, is orally active, but is not recommended, as it is toxic to the gastrointestinal system,thyroid, heart, liver and kidney and may cause cancer. There is now a blood test to test for cobalt levels.
Other recent research is looking at inhalation of the noble gases Argon or Xenon or Krypton as HIF activators of erythropoiesis. They have both been used by Russian athletes, and both compounds have recently been banned. The cheaters are always finding new ways to cheat and the testers are always trying to find new ways to test.
For further reading check out: Simon Beuck,et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers and other small-molecule erythropoiesis stimulating agents in current and preventive doping analysis. Drug Testing and Analysis 2012 Nov;4(11):830-45., from their special issue on Sports Drug Testing for Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Autologous Blood Transfusion... many interesting articles in this issue.
Hey... Metric Miler.
You think you know more about this topic than me.
Come on Metric Miler. Show me.
Go Metric Miler!