You are right Antonio, such discussion like these can go on as long as people want to talk about them, and of course as long as new evidence is discovered to add to the debate. So yes, it is clearly NOT over, but I did indeed mean that for me, I would stop talking about it on THIS thread, since I have already done a lot of writing, and did not want "take over" the thread and dictate its direction. But I AM sure, based on all the evidence that is known now, that genetics play a very strong role in determining who the fastest sprint and distance runners are. And the majority of these athletes, by far, have an ancestry from West Africa and East African(and some from North Africa) respectively.
But since you asked some honest/good questions, I will write some more (ok, you "twisted my arm" ;-). But since I am so "long winded", you might be SORRY you asked!! ).
Your first question is about the relation between altitude living and producing the best runners of East Africa. Here is a quote about the mountainous regions of East Africa:
"In Eastern Africa, Ethiopia mountains include Mount Ras Daschan, Mount Abune Yosef, Mount Choke and Mount Guge; Central and Western highlands of Kenya which include Mount Kenya, Mount Nyambene, Aberdare and Cherangani Hills; Central and Northern Highlands of Tanzania which include Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Meru and Usambara in Tanzania; and Mount Elgon and the Ruwenzori in Uganda. Apart from these, there are many other smaller ranges and highlands in all countries in Africa." )
So clearly we can see that there are a LOT of mountainous and highland regions in Kenya and in Ethiopia(but they are not ALL highland areas). Now relating specifically to your question, we already know that the Kalenjin tribe is from a highland part of Kenya, and they are the dominant producer of Kenyan stars. But what about the Kenya stars that are NOT from this tribe, or the Ethiopian stars? I don’t know the answer on that one for sure, but I would bet(and am quite sure) that a large % of these non-Kalenjin East African stars (from Kenya and Ethiopia, and elsewhere in East Africa) are also from highland areas. But let’s keep in mind one thing: one’s CURRENT living environment is less important than the environment of one’s ancestral history as far as the natural abilities we are talking about. So even if there are some East African stars that did not physically grow up at altitude, their ANCESTORS might have, and thus they could already have the genetic make-up/advantage of an East African highlander. They could still suck Oxygen out of the air better than the average person, even if they themselves did not grow up at altitude. It’s more important what the living and environmental conditions of your ancestors were, rather than your own current environmental conditions as relates to genetics. And this is why East Africans can of course be transplanted to other countries all over the world and still be very successful. And this is ALSO why someone like me can not just move to altitude and suddenly develop the Oxygen using capabilities of an East African. And in fact, the study I discussed earlier showed that even other peoples like the Tibetans and Peruvians whose peoples have lived on highlands for 1000’s of years had not developed as perfect a strategy for living in thin air as the Ethiopians. Why? Likely because the Tibetans and Peruvians, compared to the Ethiopians, are latecomers(in evolutionary terms) to highland areas. Maybe eventually these other cultures will show the same genetic qualities (as relates to dealing with thin air) as the Ethiopians do now. So moving to altitude might help one in distance running (clearly different training stimuli, like running hills, or using weights, or running in thin air) can make one stronger. But again, it will NOT make one develop East African Oxygen-using capabilities, which appears to be a genetic mutation selected for over 10,000’s of years.
And this leads to your second question, which was (and which I basically already answered I believe)-
"2. If so...or if don´t...is that the altitude living what changes the genes ? I really don´t know, i thanks your answer if you answer that 2 questions.
If I am to answer what I believe you mean by this question, then I would say basically yes. BUT….. one needs to be careful if one wants to describe the process accurately (and I discussed with a PHD in genetics to make sure I had it right)-
The altitude/environment does NOT "change the genes." The environment (in this case an environment with altitude) is what causes certain genetic mutations to be SELECTED FOR in a people. So the ability to deal with thin air in the most successful manner might be encoded on certain genes that exist in ALL populations to at least some extent. But ONLY in the populations that have lived at Altitude the LONGEST have these genes been selected for and passed onto ancestors AT THE HIGHEST RATES. So in most cultures that moved "out of Africa" and settled at sea-level areas, these genes (that helped people deal with thin air) were not very important for survival, and maybe other genes were (like genes for pure muscular power). So a person that did have the "thin air genes" but did not have other important genes (important for surviving a particular environ or culture) might die off in that culture, and not pass the "thin air genes" on to any ancestors. Slowly those thin-air genes would diminish in that people (but NOT necessarily DISAPPEAR. And this is why one WILL SEE great runners with "superhuman" ability from nearly ALL cultures. I am NOT saying that the East Africans have "cornered the market" on distance-running genes, only that a much higher % of their peoples have such genes, and that maybe someone like a Bekele has ALL the important genes necessary for the make-up of a distance runner). But in East Africa, thriving in thin air (and running long distances at thin air) WAS very important for survival. So naturally, the people with these thin-air genes would survive and pass them onto their ancestors, until eventually the majority of the people would have it (and thus they would have an above-average ability to suck Oxygen from the air to their blood).
Now that might not be perfectly described, but is in general close to the mark I believe. So the environment does not CHANGE the genes, but it is the catalyst for which genes are passed on (and which are not) in a group of people.
Now for the people who would argue: but WAIT, there are other cultures that have lived at Altitudes for years, and THEY have not developed great runners like the East Africans, I have 3 answers:
1) I never said such "thin-air/Oxygen processing" genes are the ONLY genes that matter in creating a good distance runner. Clearly there are others too. And likely the East Africans have those also, and maybe some of these other highland cultures do not have these other important (and unidentified) "distance running genes."
******In fact, in recent scientific discovery, it was shown that peoples who ancestors come from WARM areas have genetic differences than peoples whose ancestors came from COLD environments.***** The big difference?
The mitochondria of the peoples whose ancestors came from warm environments were better at producing ENERGY than producing heat(to stay warm), and the peoples who ancestors came from cold environments were the other way around (their mitochondria was efficient at producing heat, but NOT AS EFFICIENT at producing energy). So that’s ONE MORE GENETIC ADVANTAGE for the East Africans, because clearly their ancestors have lived in a warm environment for many years.
2) As I already pointed out, these other highlanders’ ancestors moved to altitude later than the Ethiopians. So they have not developed as perfect a strategy for dealing with thin air/and processing Oxygen as the Ethiopians.
3) There very well might be great runners in hiding in these other highland areas of the world. Coaches like Renato and Antonio and Alberto S should make a pilgrimage there to see if they can drum up some distance running interest and recruit these athletes. Who knows, there might superstars in waiting.